Last time around, I broke down the computational core of the Korg Kronos and Krome workstations. The Kronos is one of the few (only?) current synthesizer workstations based on the x86. The Kronos 2 is built around an Intel mini-ITX motherboard with a 1.86GHz dual-core Atom running a custom version of Linux. Since the x86+Linux combination is flexible and versatile, it hosts a wide variety of software-based synthesizers, including the ever popular sample-based synthesis used in so many other products from Korg, Roland and Yamaha (to name a few manufacturers).
Learning this, some folks may be disappointed to find a “lowly” Atom instead of high-end processor such as a honking 4.0GHz Core i7-4790K. It’s a quad-core processor (8 processing threads) with 1MB L2 cache, 8MB L3 cache, and integrated Intel HD Graphics 4600. Sounds like a positive screamer when compared against the D2550 Atom in the Kronos 2.
Before any fanbois freak out, I didn’t have any particular reason for choosing this particular CPU as the example. Yes, it was released in 2014, blah, blah.
First and foremost, please consider power consumption. The i7 is rated at 88W total power dissipation (TDP) while the Atom is rate at 10W TDP. High clock speed and high functionality come at a cost, specifically, power.
- On the consumption side, the i7 needs a power supply with 8 times the capacity of the Atom-based solution.
- On the dissipation side, the i7 solution needs to dissipate and remove 8 times the heat of the Atom solution.
It’s the laws of physics, folks. Silicon CMOS circuits at high clock speed consume gobs of power. If you want to save dynamic power, then reduce the clock speed and/or throw away unneeded functionality.
High power consumption and dissipation lead to difficult design problems at the product system level. The power supply (PSU) must be bigger and heavier. An ATX power supply is 2.5 to 5 pounds of dead weight. The PSU also generates heat of its own no matter how efficient it may be. CPU cooling requires both a heavy heat sink and a fan. Further, the heat produced by the heat sink and power supply must be removed from the product chassis by exhaust fans. Great, additional weight and fan noise. Ultimately, the musical instrument designer becomes a desktop computer designer.
Customers already complain about the weight of workstation products. Heavy synthesizer workstations are “studio queens.” If a workstation is too heavy to take to gigs, then why not use a high performance desktop or server solution in the studio to begin with?
One must take the CPU support infrastructure into account, too. Mid- and high-end x86 processors cannot stand alone — they need a companion chipset. The x86 processor and the chipset integrated circuit (IC) are the Mario and Luigi of computer design. You don’t see one without the other. The chipset IC implements the I/O ports: PCIe, USB and most importantly, the SATA interface to bulk storage. The chipset IC consumes and dissipates power, too, and must have its own heat sink.
x86 system design requires specialized expertise in high frequency electronics, thermal design and mechanical design. You’re unlikely to find this specific expertise at Korg, Roland and Yamaha. It’s not their core competence or value added. That’s why Korg very wisely adopted an existing mini-ITX solution for the Kronos. Korg design and manufacture the ARM-based user/audio interface board. Embedded electronics like that are a core competence and value-added component. The mini-ITX motherboard plus user/audio interface board solution is smart, system-level engineering.
So, in the end, we have the “good enough” solution that is appropriate for the product space. Korg build musical instruments, not desktop computers. The D2550 Atom has enough computational horsepower to deliver a range of synthesis techniques with adequate polyphony. The solution fits into a conventional keyboard chassis without noisy fans, without becoming dangerously hot to the touch, and at a tolerable weight.
You may think that I’ve conceded higher performance at this point, but here is one more idea for consideration — laptop technology. This solution will not deliver the absolute highest level of performance, but it might be the next step up from the mini-ITX solution. From the systems point of view, it might make sense to design a portable keyboard product around an OEM laptop motherboard, cooling system and processor. Laptop fans are generally quiet and heat could be vented through a modest port in the chassis. One could power the instrument from lithium ion batteries for relatively short periods of time or leave the batteries out for lighter weight. Perhaps Korg engineers considered this solution, too. They’ve clearly demonstrated their skill in the design of the Kronos.